Anonym kritikk: Peer Review satt på prøve av vitenskaps-teori og -forskning

Fröhlich, Gerhard Anonym kritikk: Peer Review satt på prøve av vitenskaps-teori og -forskning. Sosiologisk årbok, 2003, n. 2, pp. 151-179. [Journal article (Paginated)]

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English abstract

Criticizm is a definition criterion of science. Politeness dominates in public accessible scientific and scholarly communication. Critique is practised in secret corners – among colleagues who are friends and at the hand-in of manuscripts or grant applications. Peer review and artificially excessive refusal rates serve as prestigious ornaments, but peer review as a standardised examination system does not exist. The heterogenity of the different peer review variations depends on their – always floating with demand and offer – functions. Peer review processes fail under the spotlight of plagiarism, fraud and camouflage. Several plump manipulations were not discovered by evaluators, but by insiders, readers and the media. Various evaluators were involved in fraud affairs themselves. Additionally for multi-functionaries, "cyptamnesia" (unconscious plagiarism) is nearly unavoidable. The numerous negative empirical reports about peer review are based on the following research design: "experimental", reconstructions and replicas, surveys of evaluated appliers, accordance "measurements" of referee decisions combined with the frequency of citations. Suggestions of reform demand transparency, or the enforcement of the double blinded evaluation. I propose the modernization of the oldfashioned practises of editors and referees: systematic support of editor and evaluator competences, especially for working with databases and methods of information science. Several cases of camouflage would have been discovered by consulting full text versions of older articles of the authors. It would have been possible for a long time already to use plagiarism inpection programmes and "related document" functions, but criticizm should be an every day use of the scientist and should not be delegated to others. Openess and pluralism of the scientific fields should remain the ultimate ambition.

Norwegian abstract

Evalueringer av vitenskapelige prestasjoner er for øyeblikket gjenstand for mange politiske debatter, lovforslag og oppsiktsvekkende nyheter. Men selv ikke de øverste beslutningstakere støtter evalueringenes synspunkt og reformforslag med bakgrunn i det fond av modeller og resultater som den teoretiske-empiriske vitenskapsforskning og informasjonsvitenskap har frambrakt; de kommer åpenbart bare med private eller ideologiske meninger. De vitenskapelige rammebetingelsene blir dermed nedvurdert både i den vitenskapelige analysen og i den metavitenskapelige refleksjon. Skal vitenskapene bli drevet på et irrasjonelt grunnlag? Sett fra et vitenskapsteoretisk ståsted har evaluering, i betydning kritikk og vurdering av teorier, metoder og resultater etter "vitenskapsinterne" kriterier, alltid hørt til den vitenskapelige hverdagspraksis. Evaluering hører til grunnlaget for alle vitenskapelige metoder. Men mange vitenskapsmenn har i det siste blitt opprørt over at man forsøker å fastsette evalueringsprinsipper utenfra, prinsipper som ligner på slike som brukes innen markedsforskning eller innen produksjonskontroll. Det det gjelder er mot-evalueringen: Hvem evaluerer evaluereren? Hvem bedømmer bedømmeren? Hvem målermålestokkene? Ved siden av den evaluerende sciento-metrien (stikkord: impact factor; for kritikk se Fröhlich 1999a, 2002c) har i det siste også forskjellige peer-review-metoder blitt gjenstand for kritiske debatter, medieomtale og empiriske undersøkelser.

Item type: Journal article (Paginated)
Keywords: Informationsvorenthaltung, Wissenschaftsforschung, (qualitative ) Evaluation, Peer Review, Kritik, withholding of information, studies of science, evaluation, peer review, critics, criticism, Fehlverhalten, misconduct, Evaluering, Kritikk, vitenskapsforskning, vitenskapssvindel
Subjects: E. Publishing and legal issues. > EF. Censorship.
Depositing user: Gerhard Fröhlich
Date deposited: 24 Apr 2012
Last modified: 02 Oct 2014 12:22
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10760/16893

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