Standardization problem of author affiliations in citation indexes

Taşkın, Zehra and Al, Umut Standardization problem of author affiliations in citation indexes., 2013 [Preprint]


Download (605kB) | Preview

English abstract

Academic effectiveness of universities is measured with the number of publications and citations. However, accessing all the publications of a university reveals a challenge related to the mistakes and standardization problems in citation indexes. The main aim of this study is to seek a solution for the unstandardized addresses and publication loss of universities with regard to this problem. To achieve this, all Turkey-addressed publications published between 1928 and 2009 were analyzed and evaluated deeply. The results show that the main mistakes are based on character or spelling, indexing and translation errors. Mentioned errors effect international visibility of universities negatively, make bibliometric studies based on affiliations unreliable and reveal incorrect university rankings. To inhibit these negative effects, an algorithm was created with finite state technique by using Nooj Transducer. Frequently used 47 different affiliation variations for Hacettepe University apart from “Hacettepe Univ” and “Univ Hacettepe” were determined by the help of finite state grammar graphs. In conclusion, this study presents some reasons of the inconsistencies for university rankings. It is suggested that, mistakes and standardization issues should be considered by librarians, authors, editors, policy makers and managers to be able to solve these problems.

Item type: Preprint
Keywords: Standardization problem, Finite state technique, Data accuracy, Data unification � Address unification � Research evaluation � University rankings � Citation indexes � Nooj
Subjects: L. Information technology and library technology
L. Information technology and library technology > LZ. None of these, but in this section.
Depositing user: Zehra TASKIN
Date deposited: 18 Apr 2013 10:43
Last modified: 02 Oct 2014 12:25


"SEEK" links will first look for possible matches inside E-LIS and query Google Scholar if no results are found.

Altıntaş, K. (2001). Turkish to Crimean Tatar machine translation system. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Bilkent University, Ankara.

Chomsky, N. (1964). Syntatic structures. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.

Cole, J. R. (2000). A short history of the use of citations as a measure of the impact of scientific and scholarly work. In The Web of knowledge: A festschrift in honor of Eugene Garfield (pp. 281–298). Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Cornell, L. L. (1982). Duplication of Japanese names: A problem in citations and bibliographies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 33(2), 102–104. CrossRef

Damerau, F. J. (1964). A technique for computer detection and correction of spelling errors. Communications of the ACM, 7(3), 171–176.CrossRef

De Bruin, R. E., & Moed, H. F. (1990). The unification of addresses in scientific publications. In: L. Egghe, R. Rousseau (Eds.), Informetrics (Vol. 89–90, pp. 65–78). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Falahati Qadimi Fumani, M. R., Goltaji, M., & Parto, P. (2012). Inconsistent transliteration of Iranian university names: a hazard to Iran’s ranking in ISI Web of Science. Scientometrics, doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0818-2.

Galvez, C., & Moya-Anegón, F. (2006a). The unification of institutional addresses applying parametrized finite-state graphs (P-FSG).Scientometrics, 69(2), 323–345. CrossRef

Galvez, C., & Moya-Anegón, F. (2006b). An evaluation of conflation accuracy using finite-state transducers. Journal of Documentation, 62(3), 328–349. CrossRef

Galvez, C., & Moya-Anegón, F. (2007a). Standardizing formats of corporate source data. Scientometrics, 70(1), 3–26. CrossRef

Galvez, C., & Moya-Anegón, F. (2007b). Approximate personal name-matching through finite-state graphs. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(13), 1–17. CrossRef

Galvez, C., Moya-Anegón, F., & Solana, V. H. (2005). Term conflation methods in information retrieval: non-linguistic and linguistic approach.Journal of Documentation, 61(4), 520–547. CrossRef

Goldsmith, J. A. (1993). The last phonological rule: reflections on constraints and derivations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hacettepe University Libraries. (2012). İndekslerde HÜ-TR: bilimsel yayınlarda adres bilgisi [HU-TR in citation indexes: address information for scientific publications]. Retrieved December 28, 2012 from

Hood, W. W., & Wilson, C. S. (2003). Informetric studies using databases: opportunities and challenges. Scientometrics, 58(3), 587–608.CrossRef

Johnson, C. D. (1972). Formal aspects of phonological description (monographs on linguistic analysis). The Hague: Mouton De Gruyter.

Kaplan, R. M., & Kay, M. (1994). Regular models of phonological rule systems. Computational Linguistics, 20, 301–378.

Kettunen, K. (2008). Reductive and generative approaches to management of morphological variation of keywords in monolingual information retrieval: an overview. Journal of Documentation, 65(2), 267–290. CrossRef

Moed, H. F. (2005). Citation analysis in research evaluation. Dordrecht: Springer.

Mohri, M. (1997). Finite-state transducers in language and speech processing. Computational Linguistics, 23(2), 269–311.

Nooj. (2012). Nooj introduction. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from

Oflazer, K. (1996). Error-tolerant finite-state recognition with applications to morphological analysis and spelling correction. Computational Linguistics, 22(1), 73–89.

Öğretim. (2007). Öğretim Üyeliğine Yükseltilme ve Atanma Yönetmeliğinde Değişiklik Yapılmasına Dair Yönetmelik [Regulation for changings on promotions and assignments for lecturers]. T.C. Resmi Gazete. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from

Piternick, A. B. (1982). Standardization of journal titles in databases. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 33(2), 105.CrossRef

Roche, E., & Schabes, Y. (1995). Deterministic part-of-speech tagging with finite-state transducers. Computational Linguistics, 21(2), 227–253.

Roche, E., & Schabes, Y. (1996). Introduction to finite-state devices in natural language processing. Technical Report, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, TR96-13. Retrieved 27 February, 2012 from

Roche, E., & Schabes, Y. (1997). Finite-state language processing (language, speech and communication). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Ruiz-Pérez, R., López-Cózar, E. D., & Jimėnez-Contreras, E. (2002). Spanish personal name variations in national and international biomedical databases: implications for information retrieval and bibliometric studies. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 90(4), 411–430.

Scholl, M. H. (2008). (Some) Formal foundations of modelling dynamics. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from

SciVerse Scopus. (2012). Affiliation identifier. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from|StartTopic=Content%2Fh_affilsrchtips.htm|SkinName=svs_SC.

Taşkın, Z. (2012). Atıf dizinlerinde üniversite adreslerinin standardizasyon sorunu (Standardization problem of university addresses on citation indexes). Unpublished MA Thesis, Hacettepe University.

The Council of Higher Education. (2010). 2010 yılı yayın istatistikleri [Publication statistics of 2010]. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from

Thomson Reuters. (2009). Web of Science 8.0. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from

Thomson Reuters. (2012). Searching the organizations—enhanced list. Retrieved 20 February, 2013 from

Toutkoushian, R. K., & Webber, K. (2011). Measuring the research performance of post-secondary institutions. In University rankings: Theoretical basis, methodology and impacts on global higher education (pp. 123–144). New York: Springer.

ULAKBİM. (2007). Türkiye bilimsel yayın göstergeleri (1): 1981–2006 (National Scientific Indicators for Turkey (1): 1981–2006). In İ. H. Demirel, C. Saraç & E. A. Gürses (Eds.). Ankara: ULAKBİM.

ULAKBİM. (2010). TÜBİTAK Uluslararası bilimsel yayınları teşvik programı uygulama esasları [Implementation fundamentals for TÜBİTAK Incentive Program for Scientific Publications]. ULAKBİM. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from

URAP (University Ranking by Academic Performance). (2011). Genel Bilgi [General information]. Retrieved 28 December, 2012 from

Van Raan, A. F. J. (2005). Fatal attraction: conceptual and methodological problems in the ranking of universities by bibliometric methods.Scientometrics, 62(1), 133–143. CrossRef

Williams, M. E., & Lannom, L. (1981). Lack of standardization of the journal title element in databases. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 32(3), 229–233. CrossRef


Downloads per month over past year

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item