Discriminatory Expressions, the Young and Social Networks: The Effect of Gender = Expresiones discriminatorias, jóvenes y redes sociales: la influencia del género

Dueñas-Cid, David and Pontón-Merino, Paloma and Belzunegui-Eraso, Ángel and Pastor-Gosálbez, Inma Discriminatory Expressions, the Young and Social Networks: The Effect of Gender = Expresiones discriminatorias, jóvenes y redes sociales: la influencia del género. Comunicar, 2016, vol. 24, n. 46, pp. 67-76. [Journal article (Paginated)]

[img] Text (English text)
c4607en.pdf - Published version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike.

Download (741kB)
[img] Text (Texto en Español)
c4607es.pdf - Published version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike.

Download (899kB)

English abstract

In the framework of the «Project I: CUD» (Internet: Creatively Unveiling Discrimination), carried out in the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Romania and Spain, we conducted a study into the expressions of discrimination used by young people on social network sites (SNS). To do so we designed a methodological strategy for detecting discriminatory content in 493 Facebook profiles and used this strategy to collect 363 examples for further analysis. Our aims were to compile information on the various types of discriminatory content and how they function online in order to create tools and strategies that can be used by trainers, teachers and families to combat discrimination on the Internet. Through this study we have detected patterns between young men and young women that reveal that there is a feminine and a masculine way of behaving on the Internet and that there are different ways of expressing discrimination on SNS. Men tend to be more direct in their posting and sharing of messages. Their messages, which are also more clearly discriminatory, focus more on discrimination towards ethnic groups and cultural minorities. Women, on the other hand, tend to use indirect (reactive) discriminatory strategies with a less obvious discriminatory component that mainly focuses on sociocultural status and physical appearance.

Spanish abstract

En el marco del Proyecto «I:CUD» (Internet: Desenmascarando la discriminación creativamente), llevado a cabo en el Reino Unido, Italia, Bélgica, Rumanía y España, hemos desarrollado una investigación sobre las expresiones de discriminación utilizadas por los jóvenes en las redes sociales (SNS). Para la realización de esta investigación, se ha diseñado una estrategia metodológica de detección de contenidos discriminatorios en 493 perfiles de Facebook que ha permitido encontrar 363 ejemplos para su análisis. El objetivo de la misma ha sido la obtención de información acerca de los tipos de contenidos discriminatorios y su forma de funcionamiento on-line, para facilitar la creación de herramientas y estrategias para luchar contra la discriminación en la Red, y su utilización por parte de formadores, docentes y familias. Como resultado, hemos detectado algunos patrones diferenciales entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes que nos permiten afirmar la existencia de una forma femenina y otra masculina de comportarse en Internet y un uso diferencial de las SNS en relación con la discriminación. En cuanto a ésta, los hombres tienden a tener más actividad directa (publicando y compartiendo mensajes), con contenidos más claramente discriminatorios y, sobretodo, centrados en la discriminación hacia grupos étnicos y minorías culturales. Las mujeres, por su parte, tienden a utilizar estrategias de discriminación no directas (reactivas), con una menor evidencia del componente discriminatorio. Ellas, mayoritariamente, dirigen las actitudes discriminatorias hacia la situación sociocultural y la apariencia física.

Item type: Journal article (Paginated)
Keywords: attitudes, virtual communities, discrimination, gender studies, Internet, youth, social network sites, sociology, actitudes, comunidades virtuales, discriminación, estudios de género, Internet, jóvenes, redes sociales, sociología
Subjects: B. Information use and sociology of information > BJ. Communication
G. Industry, profession and education.
G. Industry, profession and education. > GH. Education.
Depositing user: Alex Ruiz
Date deposited: 25 Jul 2016 16:09
Last modified: 25 Jul 2016 16:09
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10760/29595

References

"SEEK" links will first look for possible matches inside E-LIS and query Google Scholar if no results are found.

Alvesson, M., & Billing, Y. (1997). Understanding Gender and Organizations. London: Sage Publications.

Amorós, C. (1994). Feminismo: igualdad y diferencia. México: UNAM.

Bernárdez-Rodal, A. (2006). A la búsqueda de una ‘habitación propia’: comportamiento de género en el uso de Internet y los chats en la adolescencia. Revista de Estudios de la Juventud, 73, 69-82. (http://goo.gl/8kXFfT) (30-07-2015).

Bortee, D.S. (2005). Presentation of Self on the Web: An Ethnographic Study of Teenage Girls. Education, Communication & Information, 5(1), 25-39. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14636310500061102

Bourdieu, P. (2000). Poder, derecho y clases sociales. Bilbao: Desclée de Brouwer.

Boyd, D. (2007). Why Youth Heart Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. Cambridge: Berkman Centre for Internet & Society at Harvard University. Research Publication 2007-16. (http://goo.gl/bTm3NK) (30-07-2015).

Bringué, X., & Sádaba, C.C. (2011). Menores y redes sociales. Foro Generaciones Interactivas. Madrid: Fundación Telefónica.

Castells, M. (2001). Internet y la sociedad red. Lección inaugural del Programa de Doctorado sobre la sociedad de la información y el conocimiento. Barcelona: UOC. (http://goo.gl/Ga4Xs7) (30-07-2015).

Centola, D. (2015). The Social Origins of Networks and Diffusion. American Journal of Sociology, 120(5), 1295-1338. (http://goo.gl/Zhh0CT) (31-07-2015).

Connell, R.W. (1993). Gender and Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Connell, R.W. (2002). Gender Short Introductions. Cambridge: Polity Press, Blackwell Publishers.

Curington, C. V., Lin K-H., & Lundquist, J. H. (2015). Positioning Multiraciality in Cyberspace: Treatment of Multiracial Daters in an Online Dating Website. American Sociological Review 80, 764-788. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122415591268

Deaux, K., & Stewart, A. (2001). Framing Gendered Identities. In R.K. Unger (Ed.), Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.

Dugan, M., & Brenner, J. (2013). The Demography of Social Media Users 2012. (http://goo.gl/IlfeUA) (12-07-2014).

Ellison, N.E., Stein?eld, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The Bene?ts of Facebook ‘Friends’: Social Capital and College Students Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x

Espinar, E., & González-Río, M.J. (2009). Jóvenes en las redes sociales virtuales. Un análisis exploratorio de las diferencias de género. Feminismo/s, 14, 87-106. (http://goo.gl/5eCEXu) (30-07-2015)

Fenstermaker, S., & West, C. (2002). Doing Gender, Doing Difference: Inequality, Power and Institutional Change. New York: Routledge.

Fundación Pfizer (2009). La juventud y las redes sociales en Internet. Madrid: Fundación Pfizer. (https://goo.gl/3heSgn) (30-07-2015).

García, M.C., Alonso, J., & del Hoyo, M. (2013). La participación de los jóvenes en las redes sociales: finalidad, oportunidades y gratificaciones. Anàlisi, 48, 95-110. (https://goo.gl/qpYGKn) (30-07-2015).

Garton, L., Haythornthwaite, C., & Wellman, B. (1997). Studying Online Social Networks. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 3(1). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00062.x

Gómez, A.G. (2010). Lexical Encoding of Gender Relations and Identities. In R.M. Jiménez-Catalán (Coord.), Gender Perspectives on Vocabulary in Foreign and Second Languages (pp. 238-263). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Granovetter, M.S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. The American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1.360-1.380. (https://goo.gl/qhKbKs) (30-07-2015).

Haythornthwaite, C. (2005). Social Networks and Internet Connectivity Effects. Information, Community & Society, 8(2), 125-147. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691180500146185

Haythornthwaite, C., & Wellman, H. (2002). The Internet in Everyday Life: An Introduction. In C. Haythornthwaite, & B. Wellman (Ed.), The Internet in Everyday Life (pp. 1-41). Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Huffaker, D.A., & Calvert, S.L. (2005). Gender, Identity, and Language Use in Teenage Blogs. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 10(2). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2005.tb00238.x

Joinson, A.N. (2003). Understanding the Psychology of Internet Behaviour Virtual Worlds, Real Lives. Gales: Palgrave MacMillan.

Kadushin, C. (2013). Comprender las redes sociales. Teorías, conceptos y hallazgos. Madrid: CIS.

Lenhart, A. (2009). Adults and Social Network Websites (http://goo.gl/9rDtPq) (05-12-2013).

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2014). Children’s Online Risks and Opportunities: Comparative Findings from EU Kids Online and Net Children Go Mobile. London: LSE. (http://goo.gl/PhuQoa) (30-07-2015).

Manago, A.M., & al. (2008). Self-presentation and Gender on MySpace. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 446-458. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.07.001

Martuccelli, D. (2002). Grammaires de l’individu. Paris: Gallimard.

Mascheroni, G., & Ólafsson, K. (2014). Net Children go Mobile: Risks and Opportunities. Milano: Educatt.

Quan-Haase, A., & Wellman, B. (2002). Capitalizing on the Net: Social Contact, Civic Engagement and Sense of Community. In C. Haythornthwaite, & B. Wellman (Ed.), The Internet in Everyday Life (pp. 291-324). Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Rambaran, A., Dijkstra, J.K., Munniksma, A. & Cillessen, A. (2015). The Development of Adolescents’ Friendships and Antipathies: A Longitudinal Multivariate Network Test of Balance Theory. Social Networks, 43, 162-176. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2015.05.003

Rubin, G. (1975). The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex. In R. Reiter (Ed.), Toward an Anthropology of Women (pp. 157-210). New York: Monthly Review Press (http://goo.gl/FwEc54) (30-07-2015).

Schneider, F., Feldmann, A., Krishnamurthy, B., & Willinger, W. (2009). Understanding Online Social Network Usage from a Network Perspective. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet, Measurement (pp. 35-48). New York: ACM. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644893.1644899

Stefanone, M.A., & Jang, C.Y. (2007). Writing for Friends and Family: The Interpersonal Nature of Blogs. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13(1), 123-140. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00389.x

Steffes, E.M., & Burgee, L.E. (2009). Social Ties and Online Word of Mouth. Internet Research, 19(1), 42-59. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10662240910927812

Stern, S.R. (2004). Expressions of Identity Online: Prominent Features and Gender Differences in Adolescents’ World Wide Web Home Pages. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(2). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4800_4

Thelwall, M. (2008). Social Networks, Gender, and Friending: An Analysis of MySpace Member Profiles. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(8), 1.321-1.330. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.20835

Tortajada, I., Araüna, N., & Martínez, I. (2013). Advertising Stereotypes and Gender Representation in Social Networking Sites. Comunicar, 41(21), 177-186. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C41-2013-17

Urueña, A., Ferrari, A., Blanco, D., & Valdecasa, E. (2011). Las redes sociales en Internet, Observatorio Nacional de las Telecomunicaciones y de la Sociedad de la Información. (http://goo.gl/jxMYnF) (05-12-2014).

Valcárcel, A. (1994). Sexo y filosofía. Sobre la mujer y el poder. Barcelona: Anthropos.

Valkenburg, P.M., Schouten, A.P., & Peter, J. (2005). Adolescents’ Identity Experiments on the Internet. New Media & Society, 7, 383-402. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444805052282

Wellman, B., Haase, A.Q., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment. American Behavioural Scientist, 45(3), 436-455. (http://goo.gl/oSYTZV) (30-07-2015).


Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item