Gender Stereotypes 2.0: Self-representations of Adolescents on Facebook = Estereotipos de género 2.0: Auto-representaciones de adolescentes en Facebook

Oberst, Úrsula and Chamarro, Andrés and Renau, Vanessa Gender Stereotypes 2.0: Self-representations of Adolescents on Facebook = Estereotipos de género 2.0: Auto-representaciones de adolescentes en Facebook. Comunicar, 2016, vol. 24, n. 48, pp. 81-90. [Journal article (Paginated)]

[img] Text
c4808en.pdf - Published version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike.

Download (640kB)
[img] Text

Download (489kB)
Alternative locations:

English abstract

Adolescent girls and boys use online networking sites differently, and girls have a higher risk of being harmed by non-adaptive use. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which adolescents portray themselves according to gender stereotypes on their Facebook profiles. Participants were 623 Facebook users of both sexes who responded to the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personal Well-being Index (PWI). In the first step, the adolescents responded to the BSRI with respect to how they view a typical adult in terms of gender stereotypes. In the second step, half of them responded to the BSRI with respect to how they view themselves and the other half responded with respect to their self-presentation on Facebook. The results show that adolescents consider themselves to be less sexually differentiated than a typical adult of their own sex, both in their self-perception and their self-portrayal on Facebook. The study confirms that the psychological well-being of girls decreases considerably with age and that it is associated with a greater degree of masculinity. We conclude that adolescents produce accurate self-representations on their Facebook profiles, and both boys and girls tend to offer a less sexually differentiated self-concept and self-portrayal than that of the typical adult, with a slight preference for masculine traits; moreover, masculinity is associated with a greaterdegree of psychological well-being.

Spanish abstract

Chicas y chicos adolescentes hacen un uso diferente de las redes sociales online, y las chicas presentan un mayor riesgo de verse perjudicadas por un uso no adaptativo. El objetivo de este estudio era investigar en qué medida los adolescentes se presentan en términos de estereotipos de género en sus perfiles de Facebook. Los participantes, 623 usuarios de Facebook de ambos sexos, contestaron el Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) y el Personal Well-being Index (PWI). En la primera fase, respondieron sobre cómo ven a un adulto típico en términos de estereotipos de género. En la segunda fase, la mitad de ellos contestó el BSRI en relación a cómo se ven a sí mismos, y la otra mitad cómo se presentan en Facebook. Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes se consideran más sexualmente indiferenciados que un adulto típico de su mismo sexo, tanto en su auto-percepción como en su presentación en Facebook. Se confirma que el bienestar psicológico de las chicas baja considerablemente con la edad, y que está asociado a un mayor grado de masculinidad. Se concluye que los adolescentes producen representaciones verdaderas en sus perfiles de Facebook, y que existe una tendencia hacia una auto-concepción y auto-presentación más sexualmente indiferenciada con una leve preferencia por rasgos masculinos, tanto en chicos como en chicas; además, la masculinidad está asociada a un mayor grado de bienestar psicológico.

Item type: Journal article (Paginated)
Keywords: social networking sites, Facebook, adolescents, gender roles, gender stereotypes, masculinity, femininity, psychological well-being, redes sociales online, Facebook, adolescentes, roles de género, estereotipos de género, masculinidad, feminidad, bienestar psicológico
Subjects: B. Information use and sociology of information > BJ. Communication
G. Industry, profession and education.
G. Industry, profession and education. > GH. Education.
Depositing user: Alex Ruiz
Date deposited: 02 Aug 2016 08:07
Last modified: 02 Aug 2016 08:07


Back, M.D., Stopfer, J.M., & al. (2010). Facebook Profiles Reflect Actual Personality, not Self-idealization. Psychological Science, 21(3), 372-374. doi:

Bailey, J.B., Steeves, V., Burkell, J., & Regan, P. (2013). Negotiating with Gender Stereotypes on Social Networking Sites: from ‘Bicycle Face’ to Facebook. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 37(2), 91-112. doi:

Barker, V. (2009). Older Adolescents’ Motivations for Social Network Site Use: The Influence of Gender, Group Identity, and Collective Self-esteem. Cyberpsychology & Behavior?: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 12(2), 209-13. doi:

Beranuy, M., Oberst, U., Carbonell, X., & Chamarro, A. (2009). Problematic Internet and Mobile Phone Use and Clinical Symptoms in College Students: The Role of emotional intelligence. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(5), 1.182-1.187. doi:

Bond, B.J. (2009). He Posted, She Posted: Gender Differences in Self-disclosure on Social Network sites. Rocky Mountain Communication Review, 6(2), 29-37.

Cannarella, J., & Spechler, J.A. (2014). Epidemiological Modeling of Online Social Network Dynamics. arXiv preprint arXiv:1401.4208.

Carbonell, X., & Oberst, U. (2015). Las redes sociales en linea no son adictivas. Aloma: Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de L’educació I de L’esport Blanquerna, 32(2), 13-19.

Casas, F., Coenders, G., & al. (2011). Testing the Relationship Between Parents’ and their Children’s Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(6), 1.031-1.051. doi:

Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2009). Information Disclosure and Control on Facebook: Are they two Sides of the Same Coin or two Different Processes? Cyberpsychology & Behavior?: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 12(3), 341-345. doi:

Colás, P., & Villaciervos, P. (2007). La interiorización de los estereotipos de género en jóvenes y adolescentes. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 25(1), 35-58.

De Vries, D. & Peter, J. (2013). Women on Display: The Effect of Portraying the Self Online on Women’s Self-objectification. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1.483-1.489. doi:

Eagly, A. (1987). Sex Differences in Social Behavior. A Social Role Interpretation. New Jersey: Hillsdale.

Galambos, N.L., Almeida, D.M., & Petersen, A.C. (1990). Masculinity, femininity, and sex role attitudes in early adolescence: Exploring gender intensification. Child Development, 61, 1.905-1.914. doi:

Garcia, A., López-de-Ayala, M.C., & Catalina, B. (2013). The Influence of Social Networks on The Adolescents’ Online Practices. [Hábitos de uso en Internet y en las redes sociales de los adolescentes españoles]. Comunicar, 41, 195-204. doi:

García-Retamero, R., Müller, S., & López-Zafra, E. (2011). The Malleability of Gender Stereotypes: Influence of Population Size on Perceptions of Men and Women in the Past, Present, and Future. The Journal of Social Psychology, 151(5), 635-656. doi:

García-Vega, E., Robledo-Menéndez, E., García-Fernández, P., & Rico-Fernández, R. (2010). Influencia del sexo y del género en el comportamiento sexual de una población adolescente. Psicothema, 22, 606-612.

Gonzales, A.L., & Hancock, J.T. (2010). Mirror, Mirror on my Facebook Wall: Effects of Exposure to Facebook on Self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(1-2), 79-83. doi:

Gosling, S.D., Augustine, A., Vazire, S., Holtzman, N., & Gaddis, S. (2011). Manifestations of Personality in Online Social Networks: Self-reported Facebook-related Behaviors and Observable Profile Information. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(9), 483-488. doi:

Guadagno, R.E., Muscanell, N.L., Okdie, B.M., Burk, N.M., & Ward, T.B. (2011). Even in Virtual Environments Women Shop and Men Build: A Social Role Perspective on Second Life. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 304-308. doi:

Haferkamp, N., Eimler, S.C., Papadakis, A.M., & Kruck, J.V. (2012). Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus? Examining Gender Differences in Self-presentation on Social Networking Sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 15(2), 91-8. doi:

Harman, J.P., Hansen, C.E., Cochran, M.E., & Lindsey, C.R. (2005). Liar, Liar: Internet Faking but Not Frequency of Use Affects Social Skills, Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety, and Aggression. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 8(1), 1-6. doi:

Holt, C.L., & Ellis, J.B. (1998). Assessing the Current Validity of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. Sex Roles, 39(11/12), 929-941. doi:

Kalpidou, M., Costin, D., & Morris, J. (2011). The Relationship between Facebook and the Well-being of Undergraduate College Students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(4), 183-189. doi:

Kapidzic, S., & Herring, S. C. (2011). Gender, Communication, and Self?Presentation in Teen Chatrooms Revisited: Have Patterns Changed? Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication, 17(1), 39-59. doi:

Kim, J., & Lee, J.E. (2011). The Facebook Paths to Happiness: Effects of the Number of Facebook Friends and Self-presentation on Subjective well-being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(6), 359-364. doi:

Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., & al. (2002). Internet Paradox Revisited. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 49-74. doi:

Kraut, R., Patterson, M., & al. (1998). Internet Paradox. A Social Technology that Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-being? The American Psychologist, 53(9), 1017-1031. doi:

Kross, E., Verduyn, P., & al. (2013). Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-being in Young Adults. PloS One, 8(8), e69841. doi:

Krämer, N.C., & Winter, S. (2008). Impression Management 2.0. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(3), 96-106. doi:

Kuss, D.J., & Griffiths, M.D. (2011). Online Social Networking and Addiction - A Review of the Psychological Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(9), 3.528-3.552. doi:

Lengua, L.J., & Stormshak, E.A. (2000). Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms, Sex Roles, 43(11), 787-820. doi:

Lieper, C., & Friedman, C.K. (2007). The Socialization of Gender. In J. Grusec, & P. Hastings, (Eds.), Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research (pp. 561-587). New York: Guilford.

Linne, J. (2014). Common Uses of Facebook among Adolescents from Different Social Sectors in Buenos Aires City [Usos comunes de Facebook en adolescentes de distintos sectores sociales en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires]. Comunicar, 43(22), 189-197. doi:

López-Sáez, M., Morales, J., & Lisbona, A. (2008). Evolution of Gender Stereotypes in Spain: Traits and Roles. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11(2), 609–617.

López-Zafra, E., García-Retamero, R., Diekman, A., & Eagly, A. H. (2008). Dinámica de estereotipos de género y poder: un estudio transcultural. Revista de Psicología Social, 23(2), 213-219. doi:

Magnuson, M.J., & Dundes, L. (2008). Gender Differences in ‘Social Portraits’ Reflected in MySpace Profiles. Cyberpsychology & Behavior?: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 11(2), 239-41. doi:

Manago, A.M., Graham, M.B., Greenfield, P.M., & Salimkhan, G. (2008). Self-presentation and Gender on MySpace. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 446-458. doi:

Martínez-Sánchez, I., Navarro-Olivas, R., & Yubero-Jiménez, S (2009). Estereotipos de Género entre los adolescentes españoles: imagen prototípica de hombres y mujeres e imagen de uno mismo. Informació Psicológica, 95, 77-86.

Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13(4), 357-364. doi:

Nguyen, M., Bin, Y.S., & Campbell, A. (2012). Comparing online and offline self-disclosure: A systematic review. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(2), 103-111.

Páez, D., & Fernández, I. (2004). Masculinidad-femineidad como dimensión cultural y del autoconcepto. In I. Fernández, S. Ubillos, E. Zubieta, & D. Páez (Eds.), Psicología social, cultura y educación (pp. 195-207). Madrid: Pearson.

Renau, V., Carbonell, X., & Oberst, U. (2012). Redes sociales on-line, género y construcción del self. Aloma: Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l’Educació I de l’Esport Blanquerna, 30(2), 97-107.

Renau, V., Oberst, U., & Carbonell, X. (2013). Construcción de la identidad a través de las redes sociales online. Anuario de Psicología, 43(2), 159-70.

Rideout, V. (2012). Social Media, Social Life: How Teens View their Digital Lives. San Francisco: Common Sense Media.

Ruble, D.N., & Martin, C. (1998). Gender Development. In N. Eisenberg & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development (pp. 933–1016). New York: Wiley.

Sampasa-Kanyinga, H., & Lewis, R.F. (2015). Frequent Use of Social Networking Sites Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning among Children and Adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 18(7), 380-385.

Spies-Shapiro, L.A., & Margolin, G. (2014). Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(1), 1-18.

Statista (2015).The Statistics Portal. (2016-02-25).

Strano, M.M. (2008). User Descriptions and Interpretatiions of Self-presentation through Facebook Profile images. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2(2), article 1.

Thompson, S.H., & Lougheed, E. (2012). Frazzled by Facebook? An Exploratory Study of Gender differences in social Network Communication among Undergraduate Men and Women. College Student Journal, 46(1), 88–98.

Tifferet, S., & Vilnai-Yavetz, I. (2014). Gender Differences in Facebook Self-presentation: An International Randomized Study. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 388-399.

Valkenburg, P., Peter, J., & Schouten, A.P. (2006). Friend Networking Sites and Their Relationship to Adolescents’ Well-Being and Social Self-Esteem. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9(5), 584-590.

Vanderhoven, E., Schellens, T., & Valcke, M. (2014). Educating Teens about the Risks on Social Network Sites. An Intervention Study in Secondary Education [Enseñar a los adolescentes los riesgos de las redes sociales: Una propuesta de intervención en Secundaria]. Comunicar, 22(43), 123-132.

Whitley, B.E., & Bernard, E. (1985). Sex-role Orientation and Psychological Well-being: Two Meta-analyses. Sex Roles, 12(1-2), 207-225.

Williams, W., & D’Alessandro, J.(1994). A Comparison of Three Measures of Androgyny and their Relationship to Psychological Adjustment. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 9(3), 469-480.

Woo, M., & Oei, T.P. (2006). The MMPI?2 Gender?Masculine and Gender?Feminine scales: Gender Roles as Predictors of Psychological Health in Clinical Patients. International Journal of Psychology, 41(5), 413-422. doi:

Woodhill, B.M., & Samuels, C.A. (2003). Positive and Negative Androgyny and their Relationship with Psychological Health and Well-being. Sex Roles, 48(11-12), 555-565.


Downloads per month over past year

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item