OAI@AKM

Melinščak Zlodi, Iva and Melinščak, Martina OAI@AKM., 2003 . In 7 Archives, Libraries and Museums, Poreč (Croatia), 26-28 November 2003. (Unpublished) [Presentation]

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English abstract

Five years ago, every discussion on interoperability issues in digital collections was at the same time the discussion on Z39.50. And if we talk about interoperability today, we will certainly mention Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). Still, it doesn't mean that OAI-PMH could «replace» Z39.50, because each of those has its own area of application, and those areas only partially overlap. Z39.50 is very sophisticated (and demanding) standard which enables distributed or «broadcasting» searching. It means that information query is simultaneously sent from one place to multiple databases. On the other hand, interoperability concept which is enabled by OAI-PMH is based on metadata harvesting mechanism. OAI-PMH divides the world on «data providers» and «service providers». Data providers expose metadata about materials they contain, while service providers harvest those metadata, organize them and build new services on top of them. Metadata schema that OAI-PMH requires as obligatory is Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (coded in XML), but other metadata schemas employment is also possible (and suggested). The protocol itself is easily implemented and «low-barrier». Originally, it is born in context of reforming scholarly communication. Interoperability in the network of eprint archives needed to be established. The data that those archives contained were irretrievable via existing search engines; they were hidden inside «the deep web». testing of the protocol began in 2000, and participating institutions were: OCLC, CIMI, Ex Libris, NASA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, UKOLN Resource Discovery Network, Virginia Tech, as well as few US and UK universities. Firs version of the protocol was released in 2001, and the second in 2002. Very soon it became clear that the protocol is useful not only in the context of scholarly communication, but also in numerous and various projects in libraries, museums and archives. Among implementers of OAI-PMH we can find, besides subject based and institutional eprint archives, subject gateways, library OPACs, electronic theses and dissertations collections, publishers, museum and archives collections. Materials contained can be text (abstracts or full texts), images, video, raw data, software etc. But, although the list of data providers that have implemented the protocol is longer every day, the real test of applicability and usefulness of the protocol is development of new innovative service providers, in all above mentioned areas.

Croatian abstract

Kad se prije pet godina govorilo o interoperabilnosti digitalnih zbirki, svi su neizostavno spominjali i Z39.50. Ako pak danas razgovaramo o interoperabilnosti, obavezno ćemo spomenuti Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). To ipak ne znači da će OAI-PMH «istisnuti» Z39.50, jer svaki od njih ima svoja polja primjene koja se samo djelomično prklapaju. Z39.50 je vrlo sofisticirani (i zahtjevni) standard koji omogućuje distribuirani (tzv. «broadcasting») pretraživanje. To znači da se informacijski upit s jednog mjesta istodobno šalje u različite baze podataka. S druge strane, koncept interoperabilnosti kakvog omogućuje OAI-PMH počiva na mehanizmu pobiranja metapodataka. OAI-PMH dijeli svijet na davatelje podataka («data providers») i pružatelje usluga («service providers»). Davatelji podataka izlažu metapodatke o građi koju sdrže, a pružatelji usluga ih pobiru, organiziraju i grade na temelju njih nove usluge. Shema metapodataka koju OAI-PMH nužno zahtijeva je Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (iskazan u XML-u), ali je uporaba ostalih shema metapodataka također moguća (i poželjna). Sam protokol je lako primjenljiv i nezahtjevan («low-barrier»). Izvorno, protokol je nastao u kontekstu reformiranja procesa znanstvene komunikcije. Trebalo je omogućiti interoperabilnost unutar mreže eprint arhiva znanstvenih radova. Radilo se o podacima koji nisu pretraživi i dohvatljivi pomoću postojećih web-pretraživača, već se nalaze skriveni u tzv. «nevidljivom webu». Proces testiranja protokola započeo je 2000. godine, a sudjelovali su: OCLC, CIMI, Ex Libris, NASA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, UKOLN Resource Discovery Network, Virginia Tech, kao i nekoliko američkih i britanskih sveučilišta. Prva verzija objavljena je 2001. godine, a druga u 2002. godini. Vrlo brzo se pokazalo da je protokol primjenljiv ne samo u kontekstu znanstvene komunikacije, već i u brojnim i raznolikim projektima vezanim za knjižnice, muzeje i arhive. Među onima koji primjenjuju protokol nalazimo danas, osim tematskih i institucijskih arhiva znanstvenih radova, i subject gateway-e, knjižnične OPAC-e, zbirke elektroničkih magistarskih i doktorskih radova, izdavače, muzejske i arhivske zbirke. Zastupljeni sadržaji mogu biti tekstualni dokumenti (cjeloviti ili sažeci), slike, video, statistički podaci, softver i dr. No, iako je lista davatelja podataka koji primjenjuju protokol svakim danom sve duža, pravi test primjenljivosti i korisnosti protokola predstavlja razvoj što većeg broja pružatelja usluga, u svim gore spomenutim područjima.

Item type: Presentation
Keywords: interoperabilnost, OAI-PMH protokol, interoperability, OAI-PMH Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
Subjects: L. Information technology and library technology.
J. Technical services in libraries, archives, museum.
Depositing user: Iva Melinscak Zlodi
Date deposited: 09 Jun 2004
Last modified: 14 Dec 2012 17:50
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10760/4346

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