Google Scholar : the new generation of citation indexes

Noruzi, Alireza Google Scholar : the new generation of citation indexes. LIBRI, 2005, vol. 55, n. 4, pp. 170-180. [Journal article (Paginated)]

This is the latest version of this item.


Download (137kB) | Preview

English abstract

Google Scholar ( provides a new method of locating potentially relevant articles on a given subject by identifying subsequent articles that cite a previously published article. An important feature of Google Scholar is that researchers can use it to trace interconnections among authors citing articles on the same topic and to determine the frequency with which others cite a specific article, as it has a "cited by" feature. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Scholar for citation analysis and identifies advanced search techniques not well documented by Google Scholar. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Web of Science and Google Scholar for articles in the field of "Webometrics." It makes several suggestions for improving Google Scholar. Finally, it concludes that Google Scholar provides a free alternative or complement to other citation indexes.

Item type: Journal article (Paginated)
Keywords: Citation index, Search engine, Scholarly material, Webometrics
Subjects: H. Information sources, supports, channels. > HL. Databases and database Networking.
B. Information use and sociology of information > BB. Bibliometric methods
L. Information technology and library technology > LC. Internet, including WWW.
Depositing user: Dr. Alireza Noruzi
Date deposited: 11 Feb 2006
Last modified: 02 Oct 2014 12:02

Available Versions of this Item


Almind, T.C., and P. Ingwersen. 1997. Informetric analyses on the World Wide Web: methodological approaches to Webometrics. Journal of Documentation, 53(4): 404-426.

Banks, M.A. 2005. The excitement of Google Scholar, the worry of Google Print. Biomedical Digital Libraries, 2(2), March. URL: [viewed September 20, 2005]

Blachman, N. 2005. Google guide: Making searching even easier. URL: [viewed September 20, 2005]

Butler, D. 2004. Science searches shift up a gear as Google starts Scholar engine. Nature, (November 2004). URL: [viewed September 20, 2005]

Eysenbach, G., and T.L. Diepgen. 1998. Towards quality management of medical information on the Internet: Evaluation, labelling, and filtering of information. British Medical Journal, 317: 1496-1500.

Garfield, E. 1955. Citation indexes for science: A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. Science, 122 (3159): 108-111. Available at:

Garfield, E. 1979. Citation indexing: Its theory and applications in science, technology and the humanities. New York: Wiley InterScience. Available at:

Google Scholar. 2005. About Google Scholar. URL: [viewed September 20, 2005]

Hamaker, C., and B. Spry. 2005. Google Scholar. Serials, 18(1), 70-72.

Horri, A. 1983. Citation analysis. Nashr-e Danesh, 4, winter.

Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Web of Science. URL: [viewed September 20, 2005]

Jacso, P. 2004. Google Scholar Beta. Peter's Digital Reference Shelf. URL: [viewed September 20, 2005]

Jacso, P. 2005. Peter Jacso: Google Scholar and The Scientist (October 2005). URL: [viewed November 4, 2005]

Thomson ISI. 2005. History of citation indexing. URL: [viewed November 4, 2005]

Weinstock, M. 1971. Citation indexes. In: Kent, A. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. New York: Marcel Dekker, Vol. 5: 16-41. Available at:


Downloads per month over past year

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item